As online casinos continue to grow, Arab players are provided with a variety of platforms to gamble on. The best casino online sites come packed with thousands of entertaining games, lightning fast payment methods and attractive bonus packages for new and existing players.
Top rated High-value casinos for Arabic players
YYY CASINOGet 100% up to $2,200 on your first deposit
888 CASINOGet 100% up to $2000 Terms and Conditions
Haz casinoClaim Up To $1,000 + 125 Free Spins at Haz Casino Terms and Conditions
BETFINAL CASINOGet 100% up to $3,000. Play Now! Terms and Conditions
777 CASINOEnjoy 100% up to $200 On 777 Casino Terms and Conditions
Melbet Casino100% BONUS ON THE FIRST DEPOSIT UP TO 30 KWD Terms and Conditions
1xbet CasinoClaim a Massive 100% up to 5850 AED Bonus Terms and Conditions
10Bet CasinoGet 100% up to $1,000 Terms and Conditions
VIPArabClub Casino20% BONUS on your Bitcoin deposits Terms and Conditions
Golden Star CasinoGet 100% up to €1,000 Terms and Conditions
Nomini CasinoGet 50% up to €1,000 Terms and Conditions
BC.Game CasinoGet 270% up to 20,000 BCD Terms and Conditions
Rabona CasinoGet 100% up to $750 Terms and Conditions
To help you find the perfect betting site, our team of experts have curated a list of the safest casino sites for Arabic players and also added a comprehensive guide on how to enjoy the best casino gaming experience while gambling safely from Arab countries.
Best Casino Bonuses for Arabic Players
As an Arabic player, you’re entitled to some of the best bonus packages available. These offers help to boost your bankroll and enhance your entire gambling experience. Here are some of the bonuses to look forward to:
The most common type of casino bonus is the welcome bonus. As the name suggests, this bonus is given to new players when they sign up at a casino. The welcome bonus usually consists of a match bonus, which means that the casino will match a percentage of the player’s first deposit up to a certain amount. For example, if a casino Dubai platform offers a 100% match bonus of up to $500, a player who deposits $500 will receive an additional $500 in bonus funds, giving them a total of $1,000 to play with.
No Deposit Bonus
Another popular type of casino bonus is the no deposit bonus. This bonus is given to players without requiring them to make a deposit first. The no deposit bonus can come in the form of free spins or free chips that can be used to play casino online games. While the no deposit bonus is usually smaller than the welcome bonus, it’s still a great way for players to try out a casino and its games without risking their own money.
For those who enjoy playing at online casinos regularly, the reload bonus is a great way to keep the fun going. Reload bonuses are usually offered to existing players who have already made a deposit. Although the match percentage is lower than the welcome bonus, it can be claimed multiple times. For instance, you could get a 50% reload bonus of up to $200 every weekend. This means that by depositing $400, a player will receive an additional $200 in bonus funds, giving them a total of $600 to continue playing their favourite games.
While no one enjoys losing, the cashback bonus offers a glimmer of hope by giving players a percentage of their losses back as bonus funds. For example, you might be offered a 10% cashback bonus, which means that if a player loses $100, they’ll receive $10 in bonus funds.
Free Spins Bonus
If you’re a fan of slot games, the free spins bonus is a perfect way to try your luck without risking your own money. A free spins bonus gives players a set number of spins on a particular slot game, and winnings are added to their account as bonus funds.
The loyalty bonus is a great way for casinos to reward players who have been loyal over time. As players continue to gamble on the platform, they earn loyalty points that can be redeemed for various rewards, such as free spins, cashback, and match bonuses. The more loyalty points a player earns, the higher their loyalty level becomes, and the better the rewards they receive.
High Roller Bonus
The high roller bonus is tailored to players who love playing with big amounts of money. This type of bonus is usually substantial than other bonuses, but it requires a larger deposit. For instance, a casino may offer a 50% high roller bonus up to $5,000. This means that by depositing $10,000, a player will receive an additional $5,000 in bonus funds, giving them a total of $15,000 to play with.
How To Choose The Best Online Casinos For Arabic players
When searching for the best Arabic online casinos to play at, you will come across numerous options with attractive offers. To ensure you only play at the best, here are some tips on how to choose the best online casinos for Arabic players.
Check for a License
Whether you’re looking for the best online casinos in Egypt or online casino UAE, the first step to finding a reliable online casino is to check for its license. You want to make sure that the site you choose is registered with a reputable gaming authority. The most trusted gaming authorities include the Malta Gaming Authority, the UK Gambling Commission, and the Curacao Gaming Control Board. A licensed casino guarantees fair gaming, security, and transparency.
Look for Arabic Language Support
Language is a significant factor in choosing an on line casino. You want to ensure that the site offers support in Arabic, so you can easily navigate and understand the platform. Not only will this enhance your experience, but it also shows that the casino values its Arabic-speaking customers.
Choose a Casino with a Wide Range of Games
The best Arabic online casinos offer a wide selection of games regardless of your preference. You get to choose from a variety of games, including classic slots, video slots, table games, and live dealer games.
Check for Payment Options
Before choosing an online kasino, make sure that it supports your preferred payment method. The most popular payment methods among Arabic players include credit/debit cards, e-wallets, and bank transfers. It’s also important to check the withdrawal time and any fees associated with each payment option.
Look for Bonuses and Promotions
Bonuses and promotions are incentives offered by online casinos to attract new customers and retain existing ones. Look out for lucrative offers from the casino. It is also essential to check the terms and conditions of each bonus, including the wagering requirements and the maximum withdrawal limit.
Consider Customer Support
Customer support is crucial when it comes to online casinos. You want to choose a casino that offers 24/7 customer support in Arabic. The most common support options include live chat, email, and phone support. You want to ensure that the casino’s customer support team is knowledgeable, friendly, and responsive.
Check for Mobile Compatibility
With the rise of mobile gaming, it’s essential to choose a platform that is mobile-friendly. A mobile-friendly casino allows you to access the site on your mobile device without compromising the gaming experience. You need to be sure that the site is optimized for mobile devices and supports both Android and iOS.
3 Best Arabic Online Casinos for 2023
|Rank||Casino||Number of Games||Bonus Offer||Payment Speed||Play Now|
|#1||YYY Casino||1,000+||100% bonus up to $2,000||24 hours||Play Now|
|#2||888 casino||1,000+||$88 no deposit bonus + 100% bonus up to $1,000||24 hours||Play Now|
|#3||Betfinal casino||1,000+||Up to $3,000 with the first four deposits||24 hours||Play Now|
Our picks for the Best Casino Sites for Arabic Players
YYY Casino For Arabic players
YYY Casino is one of the best gambling spots for Arabic players and there are many reasons for this.
For starters, the website is sleek and modern, with dark background and vibrant colors that are easy on the eyes. Navigation is simple and straightforward, making it easy for players to find their way around the site.
Moving on to the games library, YYY Casino offers a myriad of game titles, including classics like slots, table games, and video poker. The games are provided by some of the top developers in the industry, such as Microgaming, NetEnt, and Betsoft.
One thing that sets YYY Casino apart from its competitors is the selection of Arabic games that are available. Players can enjoy a range of games that are specifically tailored to the Arabic culture, including popular games like Tawla and Baloot.
As for bonus hunters, YYY Casino packs in fantastic bonuses and promotions for both new and existing players. New players can take advantage of a generous welcome bonus that includes free spins and bonus cash. There are also regular promotions throughout the week, such as reload bonuses and cashback offers.
Finally, there is the customer support. YYY Casino offers excellent customer support that is available 24/7. You can get in touch with the support team via live chat, email, or phone, and they are always ready to help you with any questions or issues you may have.
Overall, YYY Casino is a fantastic choice for Arabic players who are looking for a fun and exciting online gambling experience.
- Full support for Arabic players
- Reliable customer support
- User-friendly online casino
- Lucrative welcome offer
- Limited gaming providers
888 Casino For Arabic players
888 Casino is a top casino online site that has been operating since 1997. It is a trusted and reputable casino that is licensed and regulated by the Gibraltar Gambling Commission and the UK Gambling Commission. This casino is an excellent choice for Arabic players as it provides a seamless and engaging gaming experience.
The casino offers an extensive selection of games from various software providers, including NetEnt, Evolution Gaming, Microgaming, and more. There is an impressive variety of slots, table games, and live dealer games, making it a one-stop destination for all your gaming needs. The casino is compatible with all devices, including desktop, mobile, and tablets, and the games are available in instant-play mode, allowing players to access them without downloading any software.
When it comes to bonuses and promotions, there is no shortage of options at this casino. 888 Casino offers a generous welcome bonus to new players. The casino also offers regular promotions and bonuses to existing players, including free spins, cashback offers, and more. Players can also participate in the loyalty program to earn points. As part of the 888 Casino VIP, you can redeem your points for cash prizes and other rewards.
In terms of payments, Arabic players can make use of a wide range of banking options. These include Visa, Mastercard, PayPal, Neteller, Skrill, and more. The casino also supports multiple currencies, including USD, EUR, GBP, and AED. Deposits and withdrawals are processed quickly, ensuring that players have access to their funds without any delay.
Top-notch customer is also available to Arabic players on 888 Casino. The site’s support team is available 24/7 via email. The support staff is friendly, knowledgeable, and quick to respond to queries.
Overall, 888 Casino offers the best features for Arabic players in a safe and secure environment.
- No deposit bonus for new players
- Arabic language supported
- Massive selection of casino games
- Impressive rewards system
- No live customer support
Bet Final Casino For Arabic players
Bet Final Casino is yet another top casino that offers an entertaining gaming experience for Arabic players.
To start off, Bet Final Casino features a sleek and modern design. The website is easy to navigate, with all the important information readily available on the homepage. For Arabic players, there would be no problem moving through the pages as the website is available in the Arabic language.
Moving on to the game selection, you will find a huge selection of slots, table games, video poker, and live dealer games from some of the top software providers in the industry.
Moving on to bonuses and promotions, Bet Final Casino has a lot to offer. They have a generous welcome bonus for new players, as well as ongoing promotions for existing players.
There is also a VIP program where players can earn rewards and benefits based on their level of play.
Finally, there is exceptional customer support at Bet Final Casino. The platform offers a helpful and knowledgeable support team available 24/7 via live chat, email, and phone. The support systems are available in Arabic, making it easy for Arab players to communicate their questions and concerns.
- Over 1,000 casino games to play
- Site is offered in the Arabic language
- Multiple bonuses and promotions for new and returning players
- Arab-friendly payment options
- Strict wagering requirement on bonuses
Popular Casino Games for Arabic Players
For Arabic players, there are a wide variety of games that can be enjoyed when playing at online casino sites. The most popular casino games to play include;
- Blackjack: Blackjack is a classic card game that is loved by many Arabic players due to its simple gameplay and high winning chances. The objective of the game is to beat the dealer by having a hand value of 21 or as close to 21 as possible without going over. Each player is dealt two cards, and they can choose to hit or stand.
- Roulette: Roulette is a thrilling game of chance with a huge following at online casinos. In this game, players bet on where they think the ball will land on a spinning wheel. The wheel is divided into numbered slots, and players can place their bets on individual numbers, groups of numbers, or colours. The more specific your bet, the higher the payout.
- Baccarat: Baccarat is another card game that is very popular among Arabic players. To win in the game, players need to have a hand value of 9 or as close to 9 as possible. Each player is dealt two cards, and the value of the cards is added up. If the value exceeds 9, then 10 is subtracted from the total value.
- Video Slots: Video slots are among the most popular casino games at online casinos. The reason for this is due to their simplicity and huge win potential. There are also thousands of different themes and variations available, giving players a never-ending supply of options. To play, you need to place a bet and spin the reels. If the symbols on the reels line up in a winning combination, you get to win a prize.
- Video Poker: Video poker is a popular card game that requires skill and strategy. There are many variations of poker, but the basic objective is to have the best hand at the table. Each player is dealt a certain number of cards, and they can bet, raise, or fold based on the strength of their hand. The game involves a lot of bluffing and reading your opponents, so it is important to have a good understanding of the game before playing.
Play live casino games
Live dealer casinos are a thrilling and immersive way to experience the excitement of gambling from the comfort of your own home. Unlike traditional online casinos, live dealer casinos offer a real-time gaming experience, with live dealers who operate real tables, and interact with players in real-time. This creates a much more authentic and engaging experience that has become increasingly popular among Arabic players.
There are a number of reasons why Arabic players love live dealer casinos. For one, they offer a more realistic gaming experience that is not possible with digital online casino games. Players can interact with real dealers, watch the action unfold in real-time, and even chat with other players at the table.
Another reason why live dealer casinos are so popular among Arabic players is that as everything is happening in real-time, players can be sure that the games are fair and transparent and that there is no chance of the casino manipulating the outcomes in any way. This is particularly important for Arabic players, who often value transparency and trustworthiness above all else.
With live casino games, players can enjoy a wide range of popular table games such as blackjack, baccarat, and roulette, as well as a number of niche games and TV shows like Deal or No Deal and Monopoly Live.
Payment Methods and banking options for Arabic players
Once you’ve chosen the perfect casino, you need to fund your account to start playing casino online real money. There are several options available to Arabic players. Let’s take a closer look at each one.
Credit and Debit Cards
Credit and debit cards are one of the most popular payment methods for online gambling. Most online casino sites accept major credit cards such as Visa and MasterCard. Arabic players can also use debit cards, which are linked to their bank accounts and can be used to make deposits and withdrawals. However, it’s important to note that some banks in the region may block gambling transactions.
E-wallets are becoming increasingly popular among Arabic players. These payment methods allow users to transfer money to and from their online casino accounts without the need to disclose their personal banking information. E-wallets are also accepted at most online casinos and are known for their fast withdrawal times.
Some e-wallets include
- Skrill: Skrill is a UK-based e-wallet service that allows users to send and receive money online. It is a popular payment method in the online gambling world because it is fast, secure, and easy to use. Skrill charges a fee of 1.45% for deposits and withdrawals, which is relatively low compared to other payment options. Arabic players can also benefit from Skrill’s multi-currency support, which allows them to transfer money in their local currency.
- Neteller: Neteller is another popular e-wallet service that is widely accepted in the online gambling industry. It offers fast and secure transactions and has low fees for deposits and withdrawals. Neteller also offers a mobile app that allows users to manage their accounts on the go. Like Skrill, Neteller also supports multiple currencies, which is convenient for Arabic players.
- ecoPayz: ecoPayz is a newer e-wallet service that has been gaining popularity in recent years. It offers a range of payment options, including instant bank transfers, prepaid cards, and virtual debit cards. ecoPayz is known for its fast and secure transactions and has low fees for deposits and withdrawals. It also offers a mobile app that allows users to manage their accounts on the
Bank transfers are a secure and reliable payment method for Arabic players. This method allows users to transfer funds directly from their bank account to their online casino account. However, bank transfers can be slower than other payment methods and may also incur higher fees.
CCryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are gaining popularity among online gamblers. These digital currencies offer a high level of security and anonymity, making them an attractive option for Arabic players who may not want to disclose their personal information. Cryptocurrency can also be used for both deposits and withdrawals at some online casino sites.
How to Use Anonymous Payment Methods
With the rise of anonymous payment methods like cryptocurrency and e-wallets, it has become easier than ever to keep your financial information private. This is very helpful for Arabic players in regions where online gambling is strictly prohibited.
These anonymous payment methods allow you to make transactions without revealing your personal information, such as your name, address, and banking details. The most popular anonymous payment method is undoubtedly cryptocurrency, but there are others such as prepaid cards and e-wallets that offer similar functionality.
To use cryptocurrency as an anonymous payment option;
Step 1: Get a cryptocurrency wallet
The first thing you’ll need is a cryptocurrency wallet. This is where you’ll store your cryptocurrency, and it’s also what you’ll use to send and receive payments. There are many different types of wallets out there, so do your research and find one that suits your needs.
Step 2: Buy some cryptocurrency
Next, you’ll need to actually buy some cryptocurrency. You can do this through a cryptocurrency exchange or a peer-to-peer marketplace. Once you’ve bought your cryptocurrency, you’ll need to transfer it to your wallet.
Step 3: Use your cryptocurrency
Now that you have some cryptocurrency in your wallet, you can start using it to make anonymous payments. The process for doing this will depend on the specific cryptocurrency you’re using, but in general, you’ll need to know the recipient’s cryptocurrency address. You can then send the payment from your wallet to their address.
One important thing to keep in mind when using cryptocurrency is that the transactions are recorded on a public ledger. While your personal information isn’t tied to the transaction, someone who knows your cryptocurrency address could potentially track your transactions. To mitigate this risk, you can use privacy-focused cryptocurrencies such as Monero or Zcash.
Another thing to keep in mind is that the value of cryptocurrencies can be volatile, so you may want to convert your cryptocurrency back into fiat currency as soon as possible if you’re concerned about losing value.
You can also use prepaid cards and e-wallets. These are similar to traditional debit and credit cards, but they offer more privacy because you don’t need to provide personal information to use them. To use prepaid cards or e-wallets
Step 1: Get a prepaid card or e-wallet
The first thing you’ll need is a prepaid card or e-wallet. There are many different providers out there, so do your research and find one that suits your needs.
Step 2: Load your card or e-wallet
Once you have your card or e-wallet, you’ll need to load it with funds. You can do this by transferring money from your bank account, using cash at a physical location, or using another payment method such as cryptocurrency.
Step 3: Use your card or e-wallet
Now that you have funds loaded onto your card or e-wallet, you can start using it to make anonymous payments. The process for doing this will depend on the specific provider you’re using, but in general, you’ll need to know the recipient’s information such as their name and address. You can then send the payment from your card or e-wallet to their information.
One thing to keep in mind when using prepaid cards and e-wallets is that they often charge fees, so be sure to read the terms and conditions carefully before using them.
Play at the YYY Casino To Enjoy Exciting Offers
How We Rate and Review Real Money Online Casinos
When it comes to online gambling, safety and trustworthiness are top priorities. At the same time, players also want an exciting gaming experience, with a wide selection of games, reliable customer service, and generous bonuses and promotions. Our team of expert reviewers takes all of these factors into account when rating and reviewing real casino online sites.
Here’s a breakdown of the key areas we consider:
Safety and Security
Before we even consider a casino’s other features, we want to make sure it’s safe and secure for our readers. We check the casino’s licensing, encryption methods, and overall reputation to ensure that players’ personal and financial information is protected.
One of the main reasons why casino lovers play online casino games is due to the variety of games available. We review each casino’s game selection, including the types of games offered, the software providers used, and the overall quality of the games. We also look for casinos that offer live dealer games, which provide an immersive and interactive gaming experience.
Bonuses and Promotions
Bonuses and promotions are a key part of the online casino experience, and we want our readers to get the most value for their money. We rate each casino’s welcome bonus, ongoing promotions, loyalty programs, and VIP rewards to determine which casinos offer the best value for players.
Depositing and withdrawing money should be quick, easy, and secure. We evaluate each casino’s banking options, including the variety of payment methods available, processing times, and any fees associated with transactions.
Inevitably, players may encounter issues while playing at an online casino, whether it’s technical difficulties or questions about bonuses and promotions. We test each casino’s customer service options, including the availability of support staff, the quality of service provided, and the methods of contact available.
More and more players are opting to play casino games on their mobile devices, so we also review each casino’s mobile compatibility. We consider factors such as the quality of the mobile app or website, the selection of games available on mobile, and the ease of use of the mobile platform.
Overall User Experience
Finally, we take all of these factors into account to evaluate the overall user experience at each casino. We look through factors such as site design and navigation, ease of use, and overall enjoyment of the gaming experience.
How to play online safely?
Online safety is paramount if you want to enjoy the best online gambling experience. By following these tips, you can protect your privacy and your funds while you play. Here are some tips to get you started:
- Choose a reputable online casino: There are many online casinos out there, but not all of them are trustworthy. Look for casinos that are authorized by reputable bodies, such as the UK Gambling Commission or the Malta Gaming Authority. Check reviews from other players and make sure the casino has a good reputation for fair play and secure transactions.
- Protect your personal information: When you sign up for an online casino account, you will be asked to provide personal information such as your name, address, and date of birth. Make sure you only share this information with trusted and reputable casinos, and never give out your password or financial information to anyone.
- Use a strong password: Create a unique and strong password for your online casino account, and change it regularly. Don’t use the same password for multiple accounts, and avoid using common words or phrases that could be easily guessed.
- Use secure payment methods: When depositing or withdrawing funds from your online casino account, make sure you use secure payment methods such as credit cards, e-wallets, or bank transfers. Avoid using unsecured payment methods such as Western Union or MoneyGram.
Using a VPN
Online gambling is illegal in most Arabic countries, and accessing gambling websites can result in severe legal consequences. Additionally, online gambling websites are often blocked by internet service providers in these countries, making it difficult to access them without a VPN.
Using a VPN can help you bypass these restrictions and access gambling websites safely and anonymously, especially for online casino Qatar and online casino Kuwait which are usually restricted to Arab players. When you connect to a VPN server, your IP address and location are hidden, making it difficult for anyone to track your online activities.
There are many VPN providers out there, but some of the most popular ones include ExpressVPN, NordVPN, and CyberGhost. These VPNs offer fast and reliable connections, as well as strong encryption to keep your online activity secure.
To use a VPN, simply follow these steps:
- Choose a VPN provider: First, you need to choose a VPN provider that meets your needs. Look for a VPN that offers strong encryption, a large server network, and a no-logs policy.
- Install the VPN app: After choosing a VPN provider of your choice, download the VPN app on your device. Most VPN providers offer apps for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS.
- Connect to a server: Open the VPN app and connect to a server in a country where online gambling is legal. This will mask your location and make it difficult for anyone to track your online activities.
- Access gambling websites: Once you’re connected to the VPN server, you can access gambling websites safely and anonymously.
Looking to play high-quality casino games? Visit YYY Casino for Arabic Players
Legality of Online Gambling in Arabic Countries
Gambling is a controversial topic worldwide, and the Arab world is no exception.
In most Arabic countries, gambling is illegal. This is due to the fact that gambling is often seen as immoral and contrary to Islamic principles. As a result, countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates have very strict laws against gambling, including online gambling.
It is worth noting that while online gambling may be illegal or prohibited in many Arabic countries, it is still possible to access online gambling sites using a virtual private network (VPN).
Using a VPN, you can still play at the best online casinos for Arabic players, whether you’re looking to play online casino Saudi Arabia or you’re from other Arab countries. To ensure a 100% safe gaming environment, you can go for anonymous payment methods using e-wallets like Skrill or Neteller or cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum.
New Online Casinos
For Arabic players, there are many online casinos available that cater specifically to their language and there are many more springing up every moment. These new online casinos for Arabic players, each come with their own unique features and benefits, offering availability in the Arabic language, which ensures that players can navigate the site and enjoy the games without any language barriers. Plus, they deliver generous bonuses and promotions and massive game selections. Among the best new online casinos for Arabic players are:
|Casino||Number of Games||Bonus Offer||Payment Speed|
|Galaxyno Casino||2,300+||$1,500 + 180 Free Spins||24 hours|
|Rabona Casino||650+||100% up to $500 + 200 free spins||24 hours|
|Nomini Casino||2,500+||100% up to $500 + 100 free spins||24 hours|
|Haz Casino||6,800+||100% up to $1.000 + 125 Free Spins||24 hours|
|Kryptosino||5,000+||100% bonus of up to $500 (Wager Free) 100% welcome bonus offer up to $1000 (30x wagering)||24 hours|
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Yes, there are many trusted VPN services that provide encrypted IP addresses allowing you to browse Arabic online casinos without restrictions. The encryption provided means that you’re anonymous online so your identity is never revealed.
To make a withdrawal from an Arabic online casino, you will typically need to go to the cashier section of the casino and select the withdrawal option. You will then need to select a payment method and enter the amount you wish to withdraw.
Yes, most Arabic online casinos offer mobile versions of their websites or dedicated mobile apps that allow you to play on your smartphone or tablet. These mobile casinos offer a selection of games optimized for smaller screens and touch controls.
Look for Arabic online casinos that authorized by renowned bodies such as the Malta Gaming Authority, the UK Gambling Commission, or the Gibraltar Gambling Commission.
Many Arabic online casinos offer customer support in Arabic, as well as other languages. You can reach the customer support team through email, phone, or live chat.
Head over to 888 Casino for Arabic players and start playing today!
with a vast experience in the gambling industry both online and offline, Stephen Abiola is a passionate writer who is experienced in creating casino-related content. His main areas of specialty include casino reviews, sports betting guides, bonus articles and lots more.
So far, he has written thousands of gambling content and hopes to create more content so that new and existing players can learn tips on how to win.
During his spare time, Stephen plays video games and monitors the happenings in NFL, NBA and EPL.